Mangrove forests are known as a type of forest that is submerged in salt or brackish waters due to the impact of tides but they will not tolerate the regular flooding. They will die when be flooded continuously. Mangrove forests are the special forests in the estuaries and coastal areas of tropical and subtropical countries; they are the valuable resources of forest products, the place of residence and supply of food for many types of valuable aquatic products. Due to lack of knowledge about mangroves, especially in terms of ecosystems and the socio-economic demands, mangroves have been destroyed and exploited indiscriminately in order to get charcoal, wood, fuel, tannins, agricultural production, shrimp and fish farming… The area of mangroves has been reduced seriously, many places are almost wiped out, the area of saline alum is increasing, seafood resources are declining, the climate is worse, erosion of coastline and river banks… Many locals try to replant but the process is slow and difficult. The vegetation in mangroves includes species of woody plants and grasses, belonging to many different families with some ecological and physiological similarities, adapting to the salty, brackish and marshy environments.
Mangroves in Binh Thuan
Role and importance of mangrove forest
Mangrove forests are the habitats for larvae and provide food for marine species.
Mangrove ecosystem is considered as the highest biological productivity, especially in aquatic resources. The organic plant matters also known as organic humus are the first abundant food sources for aquatic species. Mangroves are the nursery of marine life. In the life cycle of a large number of fishes, shrimps… they live in the estuarine areas with mangroves for one or several stages. In addition to shrimp resources, mangroves also provide food and seed for scallop farming, which is the second fisheries resource after shrimp farming. Mangroves have many shellfishes, which are the very important sources of natural seed.
Mangrove forest is a place of entertainment and tourism
Many countries have exploited the richness of mangroves to create the ideal areas for entertainment and tourism. The tourism services in mangrove forests require little capital, but they have a lot of interest and especially contribute to the conservation of important ecological resources of the country. In addition, this is also a favorable place to propagate and educate the local students and peoples about the conservation of natural resources and ecological role of mangroves.
The role of mangroves for climate, encroachment and erosion controla. Climate:Mangroves regulate the climate in the region, reducing the temperature range. In the world, there are many typical examples showing that the destruction of mangroves will causes the climate change of the region. There are places where the loss of mangroves causes the sudden increase of wind speed, causing sand to move and fill the fields, canals. The destruction of mangroves due to many reasons: overexploitation, destroying mangroves for conversion of agriculture land, salt making, aquaculture, urban… or due to chemical contamination…
b. Sea encroachment and erosion control:Mangroves cause the increase of processes of deposition and erosion. Mangrove roots and plant populations cause the sediments to deposit faster. They prevent effectively the factors causing the coastal erosion because of winds and waves, besides they are obstacles to the deposition of sediment. The presence of mangroves enhances the deposition of sediment, expands the accretion area, and limits the processes of erosion and coastal encroachment.
Distribution of mangroves in Vietnam
29 cities and provinces in Vietnam have coastal mangroves spreading from Mong Cai to Ha Tien. Mangroves are distributed and developed strongly in the south, especially in Ca Mau- the Mekong Delta. The mangrove populations in the north are low and small.
Composition of mangrove flora in Vietnam
35 major species and 40 species participating in the mangroves have been recorded in Vietnam. In the mangrove flora, there are 5 families playing the important role: Rhizophoraceae, Avicemiaceae, Sounerrtiaceae, Myrsinaceae, and Palmae.
- Nguyen Huu Dai, 1999. Aquatic Plants. Agricultural Publishing House, Ho Chi Minh City, 290 pages.
- Web sit: https://www.academia.edu/36547320/Rừng_ngập_mặn